Off-Grid Energy Resources

Productive Use of Energy

Increased energy access may not always directly lead to improved livelihoods and economic development. The productive use of energy - including electricity, heat, and mechanical power - is aimed at enhancing income generation opportunities and productivity. Examples include healthcare, agricultural, educational, business, and industrial activities that would not be possible without the input of energy.

General Information and Specific Technologies

Energypedia's Productive Use Portal and list of articles GIZ's Catalogue of DC-Appliances: 140 factsheets for DV appliances designed to be to be powered by off-grid solar, including equipment for:
  • Livestock breeding
  • Water pumping
  • Food processing and milling
  • Food storage, refrigeration and freezing
  • Workshop tools, sewing machines, and washing machines
  • Media, entertainment, and office equipment
  • Haircutting and personal care
Sendea's Database of Off-Grid components and appliances
  • Fans
  • Refrigerators 
  • Fridges
  • Pumps
  • Radios
  • TV
  • LED bulbs
  • Solar lighting and power


The Productive Use of Renewable Energy in Africa (report from the Alliance for Rural Electrification)

Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity (report from ESMAP)

The State of the Off-Grid Appliance Market (report from Global Leap)

2017 Buyer’s Guide for Off-Grid Refrigerators (report from Global Leap)

Solar Pumping for Irrigation (policy brief from IRENA)

PRODUSE (Productive Use of Energy) is a joint initiative between ESMAP, the Africa Electrification Initiative, the EU Energy Initiative, and GIZ
  • The PRODUSE Manual is a guide for designing and implementing activities to promote the productive use of energy.
  • The PRODUSE Methodology is an approach for evaluating the productive use impacts of several electrification programs
  • The PRODUSE Study is an evaluation of several electrification programs, using the PRODUSE methodology